Languages like C and C++ were using
- ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) for the United States.
- ISO 8859-1 for Western European Language.
- KOI-8 for Russian.
- GB18030 and BIG-5 for Chinese, and so on.
So the problem was the character standard system allocates 1 byte for a character which was not capable of handling more than one language support in programming.
For Ex. ASCII Values and English Characters:
JAVA as an Internet programming language had to support languages around the globe. To do so the character set had to be increased. On increasing a character set the number of bits used to store the data also increased. To accommodate the characters of all languages in JAVA, a character is allocated 2 bytes following a UNICODE system.
Format of UNICODE system: