Difference between Microprocessor and Microcontroller

 

Microprocessor

MPU

Microprocessor is heart of computer system.It is just single processor, memory and I/O components have to be connected externally.Since memory and I/O has to be connected externally,the circuit becomes large.Cost of entire system increases.Due to external components,the entire power consumption is high.Most of microprocessors do not have power saving features.Since memory and I/O components are all external,each instruction will need external operation,hence it is relatively slower.Microprocessor have less number of registers,hence more operations are memory based.Microprocessor are based on Von-Neumann model/architecture where program and data are stored in same memory module.

Examples:Desktop,Laptop,Notepad etc.

Microcontroller

MCU

Microcontroller has external processor along with internal memory and I/O components.Since memory and I/O are present internally,the circuit is small.It can be used in compact systems and hence it is an efficient technologies.Cost of entire system is low.Since external components are low,total power consumption is less.Most of microcontrollers have power saving modes like idle mode and power saving mode.Since components are internal,most of the operations are internal instructions,hence speed is fast.Microcontrolles have  more number of registers,hence the programs are easier to write.Microcontrollers are based on Harvard Architecture where program and data memory are separate.

Examples:Keyboard,Mouse,Pendeive,Washing Machine,Digicam,Microwave,automobiles,

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